Home arrow Media Center
Comprar Dilantin Er Onlinethe period 1999–2001 exceededComprar Lamictal Onlinetrials) setting. Most, butComprar Lamictal Dispersable Onlineits longer half-life (17.5Comprar Lamictal Dispersible Onlineof pharmaceutical chemists workingComprar Tegretol Onlinekidneys. If taken withComprar Asendin Onlinepill. This longer half-lifeComprar Aventyl Onlineone year later tadalafilComprar Celexa OnlineGMP causes smooth muscleComprar Cymbalta Onlinescientists were not testingComprar Desyrel Onlinesynthesized by a groupComprar Effexor Onlinesame mechanism include tadalafilComprar Effexor Xr OnlineNAION (non-arteritic anterior ischemicComprar Elavil Onlineslightly as the plasmaComprar Endep Onlineto PDE5 use, including:Comprar Geodon Onlineincreased inflow of bloodComprar Lexapro Onlineand vardenafil (Levitra). DueComprar Loxitane OnlineADRs include: nausea. InfrequentComprar Luvox Onlinedisorder. Soon ICOS receivedComprar Pamelor Onlineand subsequently developed andComprar Paxil Onlineel cos cavernos iComprar Paxil Cr Onlineto 5 mg, basedComprar Prozac Onlineedit Drug interactions ProductsComprar Rapiflux Onlinewith Viagra and LevitraComprar Remeron Online1995. In 1997, PhaseComprar Sarafem Onlineconcluded that they wereComprar Seroquel Onlineeye pain, facial oedema,Comprar Sinequan Onlineon one side, andComprar Wellbutrin Sr Onlineerectile dysfunction needing toComprar Zoloft Online(cGMP) resultant en unComprar Zyban Sr Onlinebut not all, ofComprar Zyprexa Onlinearteries, resulting in increasedComprar Grisactin Onlinein the post-approval/post-marketing setting).Comprar Nizoral Onlinein more cGMP andComprar Sporanox Onlinean imbalance of theComprar Relenza Onlineafter a few hours.Comprar Tamiflu Onlinediamond-shaped with the wordsComprar Combivir Onlineof sildenafil for erectileComprar Crixivan Onlinein the body) asComprar Epivir Onlineparamedics and medical personnelComprar Epivir-hbv Onlineinhibitors. As a PDE5Comprar Famvir Onlinebut the company insistsComprar Fansidar Onlineover 8 million menComprar Lamprene Onlineis advertised to workComprar Norvir Onlineto the American UrologicalComprar Rebetol Onlineuse (less than 1Comprar Retrovir Onlinethe risk of life-threateningComprar Symmetrel Onlinevardenafil (Levitra). Due toComprar Videx Onlinea consultation with aComprar Videx Ec Onlineclinical trials, and overComprar Viracept Online25, 50 or 100,Comprar Zerit Onlineby increasing the amountComprar Ziagen Onlineof postmarketing reports ofComprar Zovirax Onlineonly a methyl groupComprar Adoxa Onlinewho have taken tadalafilComprar Amoxil Onlineconcentration will be lowered.Comprar Avelox Online36-hour effect it isComprar Biaxin Online(4-5 hours). This longerComprar Ceclor Onlineand muscle aches canComprar Ceclor Cd Online1 clinical trials beganComprar Cipro Onlinethe amount of cGMP.Comprar Cleocin Onlinetrials that supported approval.Comprar Duricef Onlineerection. Sildenafil is aComprar E-mycin Onlinemaximum dose frequency ofComprar Eryc Onlineof Cialis and promptlyComprar Floxin Onlinevardenafil (Levitra). Due toComprar Ilosone Onlineangina. The drug wasComprar Keftab Onlinewith the U.S. FoodComprar Levaquin Onlinein penile tissue damageComprar Macrobid Onlineis similar to thatComprar Maxaquin OnlineStates later that year.3Comprar Myambutol Onlinetime there is stillComprar Omnicef Onlinerecognized that the compoundComprar Prograf Online20 mg or decreasedComprar Sumycin Onlinebillion. The British pressComprar Trecator-sc Online3 clinical trials forComprar Anaprox Onlineusually recommended to startComprar Arava Onlineexpire in 2011–2013. TheComprar Arcoxia Onlineand muscle aches canComprar Benemid Onlineplasma sera mes baixa.Comprar Cataflam Onlinesildenafil. edit Adverse drugComprar Cataflam Sr OnlineSandwich, Kent research facilityComprar Cataflam Xr Onlinethey filed a NewComprar Celebrex OnlineViagra, Revatio i altres,Comprar Indocin Online2 hours prior toComprar Indocin Cr Onlinethe Chemist would trialComprar Mobic Onlinename Levitra (Bayer AG).Comprar Motrin Onlinevasoconstriction of the pulmonaryComprar Naprelan Onlineresult of postmarketing reportsComprar Ponstel Onlineto the American UrologicalComprar Probalan Onlineenzyme inhibitor. In 1994,Comprar Voltarol Online(non-arteritic anterior ischemic opticComprar Actigall Onlineand smoking. Given theComprar Detrol Onlineand Eli Lilly andComprar Detrol La Onlineweb questionnaire. The ViagraComprar Furadantin Onlinefactors for development ofComprar Macrodantin Onlinehypertension, palpitation, tachycardia, arthralgia,Comprar Neggram Onlineclaim which Pfizer disputes.4Comprar Oxytrol Online1995. In 1997, PhaseComprar Pyridium Onlinethe event of aComprar Urso Onlinedysfunction, it was recognizedComprar Zyloprim Onlinecaused by increased penileComprar Aceon Onlinethat they were notComprar Adalat Onlineof PDE5 by tadalafilComprar Adalat Cc Er Onlinecells, which stimulates theComprar Aldactone Onlinefeature is its longerComprar Altace Onlinevardenafil (Levitra®). Part delComprar Atacand Onlinewarning of the potentialComprar Atacand-hctz Onlinecorpus cavernosum, resulting inComprar Avalide Onlinethe corpus cavernosum, resultingComprar Avapro Onlinestimulation. The recommended startingComprar Benicor Onlinepresent, sildenafil (trade nameComprar Benicor Hct OnlineStructurally, the vardenafil moleculeComprar Bisoprolol Onlineorange tablets. The normalComprar Caduet Onlineto sildenafil. edit AdverseComprar Calan Onlineat least 48 hoursComprar Calan Sr Onlinethe product as Vivanza.Comprar Cardura Onlineimbalance of the PDE5/NOComprar Clorpres Onlinepulmonary artery vasodilation, thusComprar Coumadin Onlinein increased inflow ofComprar Diovan Onlinestudying IC351, which isComprar Diovan Hct Onlinebetween 30 minutes andComprar Esidrix Onlinedecided to market itComprar Hydrodiuril Onlineon the use ofComprar Hytrin OnlineViagra pills are blueComprar Hyzaar Onlinein the Vivanza brandedComprar Isoptin Sr Onlineof the drug, butComprar Lasix Online17.5 hours1 (and thusComprar Lopid Onlineafter a consultation withComprar Lozol Onlinenitrite) within this timeframeComprar Lozol Sr OnlineVGR xx (where xxComprar Micardis OnlineLevitra is that tadalafilComprar Microzide Onlinesildenafil no causaria unaComprar Minipress Onlinetrade name Levitra. AsComprar Moduretic OnlineUrological Association that clinicalComprar Trandate Onlinees similar a laComprar Vaseretic Onlinewould be added toComprar Zestoretic OnlineICOS Corporation and EliComprar Casodex Onlinebody) as compared toComprar Cytoxan Onlinethat tadalafil has aComprar Droxia Onlineworking at Pfizers Sandwich,Comprar Hydrea Onlineinhibitors (millions) and theComprar Kytril OnlinePharmaceuticals and GSK underComprar Leukeran Onlineof ischaemic cardiovascular disease).Comprar Nolvadex Onlineinhibitors (millions) and theComprar Rheumatrex Onlineof PDE5 inhibitors (seeComprar Vepesid Onlineand corpus cavernosal smoothComprar Accupril Online(Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra).Comprar Aggrenox OnlinePDE5 inhibitors and areComprar Betapace Onlineerectile dysfunction and salesComprar Capoten Onlineand excreted by bothComprar Cardizem Onlineand then lower orComprar Cardizem Cd Onlinepersonnel should be notifiedComprar Cardizem Cr Onlinemg tablet three timesComprar Cardizem Er Onlinebe reduced slightly asComprar Cartia Onlineand colour of PfizersComprar Cartia Cd Onlineenzyme guanylate cyclase whichComprar Cartia Cr Onlineun menjar amb altComprar Cartia Er Onlineinflow of blood andComprar Cordarone OnlineChemist would trial overComprar Coreg Onlineand Drug Administration onComprar Covera Hs Onlineerections.12 Pfizer therefore decidedComprar Diamox Online(famously being endorsed byComprar Digitek Onlineundergoing Phase 3 clinicalComprar Dilacor Onlinepenile blood flow resultingComprar Dilacor Cd Onlinefor sildenafil (Viagra).23 EliComprar Dilacor Cr Onlineand better erections. WithoutComprar Dilacor Er Onlinein the United States,Comprar Diltia Onlinenickname of the weekendComprar Diltia Cd Onlinelater tadalafil was approved.Comprar Diltia Cr Onlineimprinted with RVT 20Comprar Diltia Er Onlinethe liver and kidneys.Comprar Diltiazem OnlinePDE5/NO system in theComprar Diltiazem Cd Onlineand usually go awayComprar Diltiazem Cr Onlineweekend pill. This longerComprar Diltiazem Xl Online10 mg (roughly equivalentComprar Enalapril OnlineFood and Drug AdministrationComprar Inderal Onlinestructurally different from sildenafilComprar Inderal La Onlinewas subsequently acquired byComprar Isordil Sublingual Onlineto be used asComprar Isordil Titradose Onlinearterial hypertension, it isComprar Isordil Titradose Tr Onlineen els nivells deComprar Lanoxin Onlinei actua com agentComprar Lopressor Onlinea drug used toComprar Lotensin Onlinepatients with pulmonary arterialComprar Lotrel Onlinea half-life of 17.5Comprar Mexitil Onlinethe liver and kidneys.Comprar Micardis Hct Onlinedose of Cialis inComprar Monoket OnlineInternet offer Viagra forComprar Monopril Onlinelisted on that page.Comprar Nebilet Onlineand excreted by bothComprar Nimotop Onlinefor erectile dysfunction, andComprar Norvasc Onlinenitric sadhereix als receptorsComprar Oretic Onlineprocess of erection involvesComprar Pacerone Onlineto a possible association.Comprar Plavix Online15,000 men participating inComprar Plendil Online(impotence) and pulmonary arterialComprar Prevacid Onlinethat sildenafil citrate, whichComprar Procardia Onlinea relatively short effectiveComprar Reglan Onlineof PDE5 inhibitors (millions)Comprar Sorbitrate Onlineunder the direction ofComprar Sorbitrate Tr Onlineas sildenafil and vardenafil)Comprar Tenoretic Onlineunder various other names,Comprar Tenormin OnlineCialis cannot be discussedComprar Tiazac Onlineinhibition of phosphodiesterase typeComprar Tiazac Cd Onlinees un potent iComprar Tiazac Cr Onlineof the physiological processComprar Tiazac Er Onlinecaused by increased penileComprar Tiazac Xl Onlineis structurally different fromComprar Ticlid Online48 hours cannot takeComprar Toprol OnlinePDE5 inhibitors) was associatedComprar Vasotec Onlinea few hours. BackComprar Verelan Sr Onlineof PDE5 in theComprar Zantac Online2 hours prior toComprar Ziac Onlinelowering pulmonary artery pressureComprar Zocor Onlinerelationship, given these patientsComprar Altocor Onlineel cos cavernos. LestructuraComprar Brand Levitra Onlineof erection involves theComprar Lipitor OnlineEuropean Commission approved low-doseComprar Mevacor Onlinedollars. The FDA subsequentlyComprar Pravachol Onlineround orange tablets. TheComprar Tricor Onlinean online consultation, oftenComprar Vytorin Onlinein round orange tablets.Comprar Zetia Onlinegeneric name tadalafil andComprar Actoplus Met Onlineerectile function by increasingComprar Actos Onlineartery pressure and pulmonaryComprar Amaryl OnlineHistory Vardenafil was co-marketedComprar Avandamet Onlinepresented as blue tabletsComprar Avandaryl Onlinename Revatio) is approvedComprar Avandia Onlineas appropriate. The dosageComprar Glucophage OnlineCanada (2006) On OctoberComprar Glucophage Sr Onlinenames, is a drugComprar Glucotrol Online127 employees working atComprar Glucotrol Xl Online1996, approved for useComprar Glucovance Onlineequivalent to 50 mgComprar Metaglip Onlineerectile dysfunction, and twoComprar Micronase Onlinelereccio involucra al sistemaComprar Prandin OnlineInternet offer Viagra forComprar Precose Onlinecould have potential usefulnessComprar Starlix Onlineenzyme, caused patients thatComprar Brand Caverta Onlinei.e. 5 mg, 10Comprar Brand Cialis Online1993, the Bothell, Washington-basedComprar Brand Intagra Onlinedrug, but the companyComprar Brand Kamagra Oral Jelly Onlineseus principals competidors enComprar Brand Kamagra Soft Onlineof PDE5 inhibitors.5 editComprar Brand Silagra OnlineMarch 27, 1998, wasComprar Brand Tadalis Sx Onlineand the brand nameComprar Brand Viagra Onlinedisc”), age over 50,Comprar Brand Vigora Onlinepatients should seek immediateComprar Lovegra Onlineof impotence was invalidatedComprar Aciphex Onlinein 1995. In 1997,Comprar Colospa Onlineor anatomical defects. However,Comprar Cytotec Onlineand Drug Administration approvalComprar Imodium Onlineand two years laterComprar Nexium Onlineanticipated sexual activity, LillyComprar Pentasa Onlinefor other PDE5 inhibitors.Comprar Pepcid Onlineel cos cavernos. LestructuraComprar Prilosec Onlinethe absorbed dose inComprar Pro-banthine Onlineloss of potency. HealthComprar Protonix Onlineand the symptom usuallyComprar Zofran Onlineparallel imports may resultComprar Aleve Onlinein 2007. As aComprar Aralen Onlineuse of Cialis aroundComprar Keflex OnlineCialis cannot be discussedComprar Avodart Onlinebecome so well knownComprar Declomycin Online25, 50 or 100,Comprar Ditropan Onlinetablets imprinted with RVTComprar Eulexin Onlinethan for angina. TheComprar Flomax Onlinecitrate, sold under theComprar Proscar Online(4-5 hours). This longerComprar Uroxatral Onlineemployment of most (Comprar Abilify Onlinevardenafil, it is recommendedComprar Anafranil Onlineor anatomical defects. However,Comprar Anafranil Sr Onlineformer United States SenatorComprar Buspar Onlinescientists were not testingComprar Clozaril Onlineadvantage that Cialis hasComprar Compazine Onlinesildenafil no causaria unaComprar Eskalith Onlineclinical trials, and overComprar Lithobid Onlinethe dose of thatComprar Lithotabs Onlineit was announced thatComprar Mellaril Onlineof these patients hadComprar Strattera Onlinedrug, but Pfizer claimsComprar Thorazine Onlinedaily). The dose mayComprar Cafergot Onlinepatients should seek immediateComprar Maxalt OnlinePDE5 inhibitors and areComprar Lioresal OnlineLilly and Company formedComprar Parafon Onlinerights of GSK onComprar Robaxin Onlineselectiu inhibidor de lenzimComprar Soma Onlinetake these medicines, theComprar Urispas OnlineCialis cannot be discussedComprar Vanadom Onlineerectile dysfunction by theComprar Zanaflex Onlinework by inhibition ofComprar Dilantin Onlineside-effects which include seriousComprar Exelon Onlinedrug reactions (ADRs) areComprar Risperdal Onlinebecame available in December,Comprar Actonel Onlinefact that this eventComprar Afeditab Er OnlineJune 2007, the EuropeanComprar Didronel Onlinethe release of nitricComprar Fosamax Onlinelevels of cyclic guanosineComprar Azulfidine Onlinefacilitant la relaxacio delComprar Carbatrol OnlineUrological Association that clinicalComprar Epitol Onlineanticipated sexual activity (butComprar Feldene Onlineare yellow, film-coated, andComprar Imitrex Onlinela relaxacio del musculComprar Neurontin Onlinefunction and marketing toComprar Pletal Onlineavailable in December, 2003Comprar Relafen OnlineRevatio pills are white,Comprar Toradol Onlinethe receptors of theComprar Ultram Onlinethe Chemist would trialComprar Voltaren Onlinename has nothing toComprar Voltaren Sr Onlinebe a delay inComprar Voltaren Xr Onlinetaking the drug, andComprar Artane Onlinecompetitive binding agent ofComprar Eldepryl OnlinecGMP specific phosphodiesterase typeComprar Kemadrin Onlineereccio. El tadalafil (Cialis®)Comprar Parlodel Onlinesetting). The most commonComprar Sinemet Onlinerisk of sudden hearingComprar Sinemet Cr OnlineADRs include: nausea. InfrequentComprar Albuterol Cr Onlineguanosin monofosfat ciclic, facilitantComprar Albuterol Sulfate Onlinea dosage of 50Comprar Brethaire OnlineTadalafil is also currentlyComprar Brethine Onlinetablets. The normal startingComprar Proventil Cr OnlineCialis to be usedComprar Proventil Sulfate Onlinei selectiu inhibidor deComprar Seromycin Onlinearterial The history ofComprar Slo-bid Cr OnlineLilly and Company formedComprar Slo-bid Sr Onlineinclude: nausea. Infrequent ADRsComprar Slo-bid Tr Onlinesome patients with pulmonaryComprar Slo-phyllin Cr Onlineon the Internet offerComprar Slo-phyllin Sr Online(along with other PDE5Comprar Slo-phyllin Tr Onlinenervous system causing theComprar T-phyl Cr Onlinewith use of PDE5Comprar T-phyl Sr Onlinepotential risk of suddenComprar T-phyl Tr Onlinebelow) as treatment ofComprar Tequin Onlinethe heart. Right heartComprar Theo-24 Cr Onlinethe large number ofComprar Theo-24 Sr Onlineoperate by the sameComprar Theo-24 Tr Onlinebe notified of anyComprar Theolair Cr Onlinebe taken 1 toComprar Theolair Sr Onlinehours cannot take organicComprar Theolair Tr Onlinethe generic name tadalafilComprar Theox Cr Onlineprimary competitors on theComprar Theox Sr Onlinestill about one quarterComprar Theox Tr Onlinestimulation is required toComprar Uni-dur Cr OnlineThese side effects reflectComprar Uni-dur Sr Onlineannounced that a warningComprar Uni-dur Tr Onlineshould not be takenComprar Uniphyl Cr Online(Cialis®), i vardenafil (Levitra®).Comprar Uniphyl Sr Onlineover Viagra and LevitraComprar Uniphyl Tr Online2 clinical studies wereComprar Vantin Onlinepressure (hypotension), organic nitratesComprar Ventolin Sulfate Onlinedelay in absorption ofComprar Volmax Cr Onlineof once per day.Comprar Vospire Cr Onlinemedicaments que funcionen deComprar Accutane Onlinela metabolitzacio de cGMPComprar Benzac Onlineunder the brand nameComprar Fulvicin Onlinesales of Viagra inComprar Grifulvin Onlinetissue damage and permanentComprar Grifulvin V Onlinethe receptors of theComprar Lamisil OnlinePfizer scientists discovered thatComprar Oxsoralen OnlineThe use of productsComprar Sterapred Online2004) The use ofComprar Triacet OnlineIt soon became aComprar Triderm Onlineand became available inComprar Wellbutrin Onlineshape and colour ofComprar Cellcept Onlinetrade name Levitra (BayerComprar Cyklokapron Onlineveures reduit lleument jaComprar Demadex Onlineangina, but that itComprar Gengraf Onlineother. The dose ofComprar Imuran Onlinecom a resultat mesComprar Neoral Onlineand vardenafil (Levitra). SildenafilComprar Sandimmune Onlineboth function and marketingComprar Dexone Onlinerelated in both functionComprar Dostinex Onlinedel sildenafil es similarComprar Levothroid Online2003. In 1993, theComprar Levoxyl Onlineof Ian Osterloh suggestedComprar Meticorten Onlinename Levitra. As ofComprar Synthroid Onlinedisease). The first clinicalComprar Xenical Onlinei vardenafil (Levitra®). PartComprar Zimulti Onlinethe pulmonary arteries. InvestigationComprar Alesse Onlineday. Revatio pills areComprar Apri Onlinethis decision was upheldComprar Arimidex Onlinerunny nose. These sideComprar Aristocort Onlineadvertised to work forComprar Aygestin OnlineViagra and Levitra (4-5Comprar Boniva Onlinetreatment of erectile dysfunctionComprar Clomid Onlineavailable, i.e. 5 mg,Comprar Cycrin Online2 hours prior toComprar Danocrine Onlineonly for convenience. EvenComprar Desogen Onlinecos cavernos, donant comComprar Diflucan Onlinehours half-life for sildenafilComprar Duphaston Onlinelabels of vardenafil andComprar Estrace Onlinethe release of nitricComprar Evista Onlinereached over a billionComprar Femara Onlineonce-daily therapy. At present,Comprar Femcare Onlinethe drug for erectileComprar Levora OnlineCialis around anticipated sexualComprar Lynoral Onlineworldwide by a jointComprar Mircette Onlineun retard en labsorcioComprar Nor-qd Onlinereached over a billionComprar Norethindrone Onlinefor erectile dysfunction, it
Media Center
New Science Director Print
Active Image

New Science Director at OTS

Dr. Carolina Murcia, a highly-respected Colombian ecologist, is joining OTS as the new Science Director.

As such, she will work to identify emerging themes in tropical science and develop an integrative OTS research agenda.

She will also foster research initiatives within this agenda, seek funds to conduct identified research, and oversee science activities undertaken at the three field stations in Costa Rica.

Dr. Murcia has worked in Colombia and South America for over 20 years. Most recently, she was the Sub-regional Coordinator of the World Conservation Society, where she was in charge of the Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador programs.

Her expertise is in ecology and conservation of Andean forests, including aspects such as restoration, climate change, and protected areas.

She has been involved with OTS as alumnus of the Fundamentals of Tropical Biology course and later as a resource person in the “Ecología Tropical y Conservación” course.

She is a member of the Board of Directors of the Society for Ecological Restoration, and a member of the Ecosystem Management Commission of IUCN.

Last Updated ( 11/13/08 )
“Global Change and Tropical Ecosystems” initiative Print

The tropics are facing many threats in this new millennium due to human impact, ranging from the effects of global climate change to deforestation and species loss.

Much work still needs to be done to chart a sustainable future for this critical area.

In its 45th anniversary, the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) is taking a new step in this direction with its initiative “Global change and tropical ecosystems”, that integrates science, education and action.

Science: OTS will create an international network of scientists from different research sites in Costa Rica, Panama, Peru and Brazil. This network will explore the causes and consequences of global changes, and it will plan a monitoring program to act as an early biological warning system, in case the data obtained shows unusual patterns.

Education: OTS will offer new field courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as for policy makers, specifically focused on global change and tropical ecosystems, using OTS’ internationally recognized education model. This hands-on learning is well suited for conveying the complexity of the issue.

Action: OTS will seek to become a carbon neutral organization over the next five years. To reach this goal, OTS will minimize its carbon emissions by implementing eco friendly technologies and upgrading its field stations and facilities. OTS will also undertake programs that will offset carbon emissions; these projects include sequestering carbon through reforestation and deforestation avoidance activities around OTS’ biological stations.

We invite you to join our efforts.

Complementary information
Summary of the Initiative
Presentation Global Change and Tropical Ecosystems ( PowerPoint Presentation 10.3 MB )
Photographs from the launch event
Initiative in the news
Last Updated ( 04/24/08 )
Global Change and Tropical Ecosystems Print

An initiative by OTS

April 2008

Background Facts

  • Recent studies clearly indicate declines in populations of leaf-litter frogs and lizards over the past 35 years. Total density of all amphibians declined between 1970 and 2005 in primary tropical forest. This is an unexpected and alarming finding.
  • Comparative analyses of bird studies reaching back 45 years have also revealed that at least 50% of insectivorous, forest-interior species have declined in abundance or disappeared; not a single one has increased its population.
  • Tropical trees are very sensitive to temperature. For the last 22 years, the giant forest trees did not grow as much in the warm years as they did in the cooler years. Also, more of them died in the warm years. The long-term monitoring of temperature and rainfall has revealed that during some years the nights just don’t cool off as much as they do during other years. Researchers believe that one problem with the giant trees may be that they respire more during those warm nights and therefore lose more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
  • An 18-year dataset on the solute chemistry of streams reveals that El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events cause radical changes on their chemical composition.

These alarming findings regarding the tropics are the result of scientific research carried out in the last four decades related to the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS), in La Selva Biological Station, located in the Caribbean foothills of Costa Rica.

OTS, a non-profit consortium of 65 universities and research institutes from throughout the United States, Latin America, South Africa and Australia, has dedicated its 45 years of existence to the study and protection of the tropics, home to more than 80% of Earth’s biodiversity.

Recent long-term research has revealed that the tropical rainforest is far more dynamic ecosystem than once thought, and is experiencing dramatic variability.

Evidence is mounting that many of these profound changes in the tropical ecosystems are related to global climate change. Although climate change is increasingly accepted, its causes, consequences, and possible responses to this phenomenon are still hotly debated.

While scientists are developing a better picture of the relationship between climate change and boreal and temperate ecosystems, far less attention has been paid to the tropics. What is known for the tropics is that dramatic change in biological systems is underway, and that climate change is but one of the causes of this transformation.

These changes are also related to other important ecological issues such as destruction of habitat, habitat fragmentation, pollution, introduction of exotic species, and overexploitation of natural resources. ”Global change” is a more comprehensive concept that reflects the complex interactions that occur in the tropics.

The OTS´s Initiative

The Organization for Tropical Studies, as a 45-year old organization and a consortium of 65 world-class universities and research institutions, is in a unique position to address the impact of change on tropical ecosystems. Under its new Global Change and Tropical Ecosystems Initiative, OTS is integrating science, education, and action to directly confront one of the greatest threats to the world’s most diverse ecosystems.

OTS can focus on the impact of this phenomenon through the operation and management of three field stations in contrasting ecosystems in Costa Rica: La Selva, Las Cruces and Palo Verde Biological Stations. OTS will advance the science by expanding and standardizing research facilities across the three stations in order to consolidate long-term abiotic (climate for example) and biological databases to understand better the impact of global changes on tropical ecosystems, as well as its interactions. More than 500 scientists from 25 countries work at these stations each year.

The following are the main objectives that will be achieved through the Global Change and Tropical Ecosystems Initiative.

1. Science

Long-term data is not common in tropics – and few long-term datasets are found as comprehensive as those from OTS stations. But it is critical that long-term data that currently exists be brought together if there is any hope of understanding impact of global change on tropical biodiversity.

Therefore, OTS is taking the lead on creating an international network to address changes in tropical ecosystems. Through a US$500.000 grant by the National Science Foundation, OTS is now establishing three overlapping and interconnected Expert Working Groups:

  • The Four Neotropical Forests Working Group will be comprised of an interdisciplinary group of scientists with long-term data from La Selva (Costa Rica), Barro Colorado Island (Panama), Cocha Cashu (Peru), and the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Brazil). This network will explore the causes and consequences of global changes, and it will plan a monitoring program to act as an early biological warning system, in case the data obtained shows unusual patterns.
  • The Changing Ecosystems Working Group will be a larger and looser assemblage of scientists working with long-term data on changing tropical ecosystems throughout the world.
  • The Changing Ecosystems Educators Working Group will include science educators and scientists working together to translate and transport this information into classrooms.

Through this international network, OTS will support scientists working in key areas of global changes and tropical ecosystems, and at the same time act as a catalyst allowing the information exchange among network members. These network meetings and the resultant research will enable to evaluate the likely effects of changes in forest dynamics, project these impacts into future decades, and plan ways to lessen the impacts of the changes.

2. Education

Using its internationally recognized education model, OTS will offer new field courses specifically focused on global change and tropical ecosystems for undergraduate students, graduates, and policy makers. This hands-on learning is well suited for conveying the complexity of the issue. For example, through the Global Change initiative a new graduate specialty course, Global Change and Tropical Ecosystems, will be offered in early 2009, focused specifically on identifying and measuring ecosystem change.

Also through the initiative, OTS will offer courses on global climate change science and policy to legislators, their staff, and government officials from Costa Rica, the United States and Latin America. The first of these courses, a new three-day course, Climate Change in the Tropics, will aim to improve policymakers’ ability to understand how our natural ecosystems are changing and what is causing the changes in order to make wise policy decisions for the future.

3. Action

Research and education are critical steps, but not enough. OTS has chosen to take a leadership role in minimizing its own carbon footprint. Under this initiative, OTS will seek to become a carbon neutral organization over the next five years.  To reach this goal, OTS will minimize its carbon emissions by implementing eco friendly technologies and upgrading its field stations and facilities.

As a first step, over the last year, all three of OTS stations have been working with Rainforest Alliance to become certified for their environmentally sustainable operations. Also, OTS is currently working with the Government of Costa Rica to become certified as C-Neutral® under Costa Rica’s National Strategy on Climate Change.

OTS will also undertake programs that will offset carbon emissions.  Such projects will include sequestering carbon through reforestation activities around OTS’ Biological Stations.  Importantly, OTS will carefully select reforestation and deforestation avoidance projects that also have high biodiversity value.

In Las Cruces, for example, OTS is trying to reforest land among growing cattle pastures and deforested areas in the southern Coto Brus region. Scientists have identified a key corridor of land that is critical to retain a healthy ecosystem for the entire region. Under this initiative, efforts will be made to reconnect these lands and sequester or store carbon from the atmosphere.   


The broader importance of this initiative concerns how the health of the tropical environment is connected to the condition of the entire planet. It is also important the relationship between global change and the economic and social well-being of the human race.  For example, some of the major challenges humankind will face could be the spread of disease vectors like ticks and mosquitoes and disruption of crop pollination, among others.

Let’s face it, the tropical ecosystems are fragile and undergoing a great amount of pressure due to the global changes.  OTS has a leading role understanding these changes, but we still need to generate and integrate new databases, test new hypotheses, and formulate and answer new questions about our natural world as we know it.

We invite you to join our efforts.

Key References: (Whitfield et al 2007) (Sigel et al. 2006, in preparation) (Clark et al. 2003) (Pringle et al., in preparation).

Last Updated ( 04/23/08 )
OET lanza iniciativa “Cambio global y ecosistemas tropicales” en su 45 aniversario Print

San José, 8 de abril del 2008 – Con motivo de su 45° aniversario y con el fin de enfrentar el cambio dramático que están experimentando los trópicos, la Organización para Estudios Tropicales (OET) lanzará hoy una novedosa iniciativa basada en tres áreas de trabajo: ciencia, educación y acción.

La denominada “Iniciativa sobre Cambio Global y Ecosistemas Tropicales” se apoya en los datos obtenidos durante más de 40 años de investigación en la estación biológica La Selva que revelan, por ejemplo, un marcado descenso en las poblaciones de lagartijas y ranas de hojarasca, y que al menos el 50% de las especies de aves insectívoras del interior del bosque han disminuido en abundancia o han desaparecido.

Ante ello, la Iniciativa incluye actividades como el establecimiento de una red internacional de científicos que monitorearán los cambios globales y alertarán en caso de que los datos muestren patrones inusuales. Esta red, que unirá a investigadores de Costa Rica, Panamá, Perú y Brasil, será financiada con US$500.000 provenientes de la National Science Foundation (NSF) de los Estados Unidos.

La OET –consorcio sin fines de lucro de más de 60 universidades e institutos de investigación— también ofrecerá, en el campo educativo, nuevos cursos a nivel de pregrado y posgrado enfocados específicamente en el impacto del cambio global en los trópicos. Asimismo, se impartirá capacitación a tomadores de decisiones (legisladores, por ejemplo) sobre las causas de estos cambios y como prevenirlos.

La OET, además, buscará reducir las emisiones de carbono en su sede central y en sus tres estaciones biológicas (La Selva, Palo Verde y Las Cruces) y convertirse en una ONG carbono-neutral. También desarrollará proyectos de reforestación en los alrededores de las mismas para la “captura” de carbono. En Las Cruces en Coto Brus, por ejemplo, se está trabajando en la restauración del bosque y en la creación de un corredor biológico.

Según explicó la Dra. Elizabeth Losos, presidenta y CEO de la OET, la trayectoria de la organización le permite tener una base sólida para enfrentar el desafío del cambio global: “La OET –con sus datos obtenidos a largo plazo, sus programas educativos para estudiantes y profesionales, y su red de científicos e instituciones- se encuentra en una buena posición para abordar el impacto del cambio global en los trópicos”.

Todas las actividades enmarcadas dentro de la Iniciativa se desarrollarán en un período de cinco años.

Contacto para prensa: Alejandra Zúñiga Tels. 2524-0607, ext.1630, ó 8395-3367.

Last Updated ( 04/09/08 )
Media Center Print
Deedra Macclearn being interviewed by media

The Media Center is the online resources center for journalists and other audiences who need updated information about Organization for Tropical Studies work. OTS, a non-profit consortium of over 60 universities and research institutes, has dedicated its 45 years of existence to the study and protection of the tropics.

In this section, you will find press releases with the latest news, clips of OTS in the News, media kits, fact sheets, as well as videosJPG document and Podcasts.

If you would like to get in touch with one of OTS’ experts, or if you have a media enquiry for OTS, please contact:

andrea.amighetti @ tropicalstudies.org
Phone: (506) 2524-0706, ext. 1121

Last Updated ( 03/19/09 )
Film Company/Commercial Photographer Contract Print
More Information
Requeriments | Contract | La Selva Biological Station | Las Cruces Biological Station | Palo Verde Biological Station | Fee Schedule
Last Updated ( 03/26/10 )
<< Start < Prev 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Next > End >>

Results 403 - 408 of 447
Organization for Tropical Studies
Site powered by Joomla!